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How solar energy works

wdh-site 2022-07-13

How solar energy works


Solar energy is one of the most popular forms of renewable energy. Solar panels are used to collect sunlight and convert it into electricity. Solar panels consist of photovoltaic cells, also known as photovoltaic cells. PV cells consist of two layers of silicon. When sunlight hits a photovoltaic cell, electrons in the silicon are excited, and they flow from one layer to another. This flow of electrons creates an electrical current that can be used to power electronic devices.



1. A solar cell is a device that uses the photoelectric effect of semiconductor materials to convert solar energy into electrical energy.


2. The basic process of the photovoltaic effect: Assuming that light is irradiated on the solar cell and the light is accepted at the interface layer, photons with sufficient energy can excite electrons from covalent bonds in P-type silicon and N-type silicon, resulting in Electron-hole pairs are generated.


3. Before recombination, the electrons and holes adjacent to the interface layer will be separated from each other by the electric field effect of the space charge. Electrons move toward the positively charged N region and holes toward the negatively charged P region. The charge through the interface layer, respectively, will form an outward testable voltage between the P and N regions.


4. At this time, electrodes can be added on both sides of the silicon wafer and connected to a voltmeter. For crystalline silicon solar cells, the typical value of the open circuit voltage is 0.5 to 0.6V. The more electron-hole pairs generated by light on the interface layer, the greater the current.


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